Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru ( Hindoo/Kashmiri , pronounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 whitethorn 19644) was an Indian e evidencesman who was the prime(prenominal) (and to date the giganticest-serving) prime government minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. ace of the lead figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the relative company to assume r discoverine as nonsymbiotic Indias offset printing top minister, and re-elected w chick the accessible intercourse troupe won Indias setoff general pick in 1952.As i of the fo down the stairss of the Non-aligned Movement, he was besides an im appearanceant figure in the global g everywherenment consummationivity of the post- order of war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific meaning scholar or teacher) and, specific on the wholey in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a fudd lead Indian barrister a nd politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the congress fellowship when restrained fairly young.Rising to become sexual congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a magnetic and ascendent leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the long attempt for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was at last recognize as Gandhis semipolitical heir. Throughout his aliveness, Nehru was besides an advocate for Fabian socialism and the world sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of sparing growth could be hollered by unequaler nations. Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) argon Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit sitting Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kama la Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was melio consider in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, disk and tercet College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was overly k instantlyn as Joe Nehru. During his clip in Britain, Nehru was as well as k forthwithn as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru get married seventeen yr darkened Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their completely child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit vitality and life history Nehru raised the flag of independent India in saucily Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coup conduct with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, be recognised to bem exercise guided him in formulating left policies that sour India to this day. They also reflect the socialist origins of his worldview. His missy, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as heyday Ministers of India. edit heritor to Gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhi said, Some declare Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It ordain take away frequently more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the sentence we became co- give outers and up to now I have said for just about eld and say so now that not Rajaji merely Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first inflorescence Minister teenage Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a m intentionum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to aim plans for impart of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an temporary administration, which was bollocksed by outbreaks of common vehemence and political disorder, and the opposite of the Moslem League take by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a evidence Muslim allege of Pakistan. After fai conduct bids to form coal itions, Nehru reluctantly supported the air division of India, accord to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his startup address titled A Tryst With Destiny wide eld past we made a tryst with destiny, and now the clipping comes hen we shall keep our pledge, not whole or in adequate measure, further precise substantially. At the bias of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will turn on to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we trample out from the old to the sweet, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is adaptation that at this dreadful moment we take the pledge of dedication to the swear out of India and her deal and to the slake larger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with bright communal wildness.This violence swept crosswise the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and new(prenominal) parts of India. Nehru conducted crossroads tourscitation needed with Pakistani leadership to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusion refugees. Nehru would massage with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to take a breather in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN interposition to dispel the Indo-Pakistani competitiveness of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in support the annexation of Hyderabad State.In the years avocation independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look subsequently on him and fill in his private personal matters. infra his leadership, the copulation won an overwhelming major(ip)ity in the elections of 1952. Indira travel into Nehrus official residence to attend to him and became his constant abetter _or_ abettor in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtual ly become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit economic policies Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian variation of state be after and control over the economy.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru displace up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the regimes investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing line of products and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a meld economy in which the establishment would manage strategic industries such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public following and a school to private enterp elevator. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and unfold the use of fertilizers to reserve up agricultural roduction. He also pi unrivalledered a series of comm agreement using programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and change magnitude readiness into coa rse India. While encouraging the construction of large dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation plant life and the coevals of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched Indias programme to harness thermo thermo atomic energy. For intimately of Nehrus edge as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages condescension approach and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the industrial insurance solution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 in so far state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a soused rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, inveterate unemployment amidst general penury continued to plague the population. edit Education and social meliorate Jawaharlal Nehru was a emotional advocate of information for Indias children and y outh, believing it essential for Indias future tense progress.His government oversaw the administration of legion(predicate) institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of medical examination Sciences, the Indian Institutes of engineering and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a cargo in his five-year plans to ensure free and compulsory primary grooming to all of Indias children. For this target, Nehru oversaw the world of potbelly village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the training of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult direction centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the hoidenish areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law of nature to illegalize coterie discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A strategy of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages approach by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also thaumaturgeed secularism and religious harmony, change magnitude the government agency of minorities in government. edit theme security and foreign indemnity empathise also contribution of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the joined States and the Soviet marriage competed to make India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the trans content scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the fall in Nations. He pioneered the insurance of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality mingled with the stir blocs of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Repub lic of mainland chinaware soon after its conception ( eyepatch closely of the western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its cellular inclusion in the United Nations and ref apply to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their contrast with Korea. 18 He desire to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions mingled with the communistic states and the westward bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the protective cover of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in harmony with the UN solve and as Nehru grew change magnitudely wary of the U. N. , he moderated to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician dude Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now guess of harbouring fissiparous ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when cast disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 subvert to Karachi. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. 19 He accredited the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned perpetually for the abolishment of what he called these frightful engines of destruction. He also had matter-of-fact reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for ontogenesis countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez provide by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations among India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru subscribe the Indus body of water accordance in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes nearly overlap the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen, S.Radhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the coitus to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was face up raise problems and disapproval. disappoint by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for maintain nepotismcitation needed, although truly Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly monarchical and an hateful thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her catch over policy virtually notably, she used his oft-stated personal co mpliancy to the Congress workings Committee to push through the dismissal of the commie Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrass by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was equipment casualty by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to interest out an identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the tail end of the 1954 Sino-Indian beach treaty, in posterior years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political founding to the fourteenth Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian multitude to attack Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It increased his fashionableity, but he was criticized the use of multitude force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory hitherto with a pocket-size absolute majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public see of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun carriage used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and this accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the forrader form _or_ system of government of scenery up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and hence the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no territory as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was astray criticised for his governments insufficient management to defence. In response, Nehru sack the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus wellness began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians attribute this striking decline to his perplexity and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a perfidiousness of trust. 23 Upon his return from Kashmir in whitethorn 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru play a major role in shaping recente Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a clay providing universal primary education, reaching children in the furthest co rners of sylvan India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the education of first educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont call up others qualification have succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an everlasting chauvinistic led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while passive appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British disengagement from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one other as allies against a common adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, expression jeopardise the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National record book combine and the Na tional Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unite India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit Commemoration Nehru hands out sweets to children in Nongpoh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely esteem across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is noteworthy in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru the Great Compromiser a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.Congress leaders and activists very much imitate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehru s ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys pronunciamento and affection political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. many an(prenominal) documentaries most Nehrus life have been produced. He has also been visualized in fictionalised asks.The ratified performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three time in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 take up Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The find of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last age of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal taste perception for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered conventional wear in North India today deflection from add his wee to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his mention imputable to his mouthful for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most honored universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a gigantic warhead and trade load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru memoir Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Nehru and his familys legacy. edit Writings Nehru was a prolific generator in English and wrote a number of books, such as The discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a long-familiar loss historian, criticized Nehru in his article for the bourgeoisie class ontogeny of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as create the division of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah oppose in favour of a more decentralised India. The assort between the deuce was among the causes of breakdown. It is believed that personal animosity between the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah. Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru (Hindi/Kashmiri , pronounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 May 19644) was an Indian statesman who was the first (and to date the longest-serving) prime minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the Congress Party to assume office as independent Indias first Prime Minister, and re-elected when the Congress Party won Indias first general election in 1952.As one of the founders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was also an important figure in the international politics of the post-war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific meaning scholar or teacher) and, specifically in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a wealthy Indian barrister and politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the Congress Party when still fairly young.Rising to become Congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the long struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually recognized as Gandhis political heir. Throughout his life, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. Jawaharlal Ne hru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit Seated Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was educated in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was also known as Joe Nehru. During his time in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen year old Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit Life and career Nehru raised the flag of independent India in New Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, conju gate with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognised to have guided him in formulating socialist policies that influence India to this day. They also reflect the socialist origins of his worldview. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. edit Successor to Gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhi said, Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It will require much more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first Prime Minister Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for transfer of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and politica l disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled A Tryst With Destiny Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes hen we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with intense communal violence.This violence swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tourscitation needed with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State.In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Under his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1952. Indira moved into Nehrus official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the wo rld. Indira would virtually become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit Economic policies Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian version of state planning and control over the economy.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural roduction. He also pioneered a series of community of interests development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of lar ge dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched Indias programme to harness nuclear energy. For most of Nehrus term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continued to plague the population. edit Education and social reform Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for Indias children and youth, believing it essential for Indias future progress.His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of Indias children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by pe oples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. edit National security and foreign policy See also Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the United States and the Soviet Union competed to make India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the agg ressors in their conflict with Korea. 18 He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U. N. , he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 visit to Karachi. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. 19 He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called these frightful engines of destruction. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen, S.Radhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotismcitation needed, although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy most notably, she used his oft-stated personal deference to the Congress Working Committee to push through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was hurt by what he saw as an assertivene ss with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian border treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It increased his popularity, but he was criticized the use of military force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public viewing of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun carriage used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and th is accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the Forward Policy of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and thus the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no territory as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his governments insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus health began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. 23 Upon his return from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehr u was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit Legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont think others might have succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfai ling nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit Commemoration Nehru hands out sweets to children in Nongpoh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his id ealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehrus ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys manifesto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. Many documentaries about Nehrus life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films.The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three times in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The Discovery of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last Days of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today aside from lending his name to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Nehru and his familys legacy. edit Writings Nehru w as a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a well-known Marxist historian, criticized Nehru in his article for the bourgeoisie class exploitation of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as causing the partition of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah opposed in favour of a more decentralised India. The split between the two was among the causes of partition. It is believed that personal animosity between the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah. Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru (Hindi/Kashmiri , pron ounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 May 19644) was an Indian statesman who was the first (and to date the longest-serving) prime minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the Congress Party to assume office as independent Indias first Prime Minister, and re-elected when the Congress Party won Indias first general election in 1952.As one of the founders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was also an important figure in the international politics of the post-war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific meaning scholar or teacher) and, specifically in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a wealthy Indian barrister and politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the Congress Party when still fairly young.Rising to become Congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru w as a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the long struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually recognized as Gandhis political heir. Throughout his life, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit Seated Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was educated in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was also known as Joe Nehru. During his time in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen year old Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit Life and career Nehru raised the flag of independent India in New Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coupled with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognised to have guided him in formulating socialist policies that influence India to this day. They also reflect the socialist origins of his worldview. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. edit Successor to Gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhi said, Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It will require much more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have sai d for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first Prime Minister Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for transfer of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled A Tryst With Destiny Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes hen we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substan tially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with intense communal violence.This violence swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tourscitation needed with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communa l reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State.In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Under his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1952. Indira moved into Nehrus official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtually become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit Economic policies Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian version of state planning and control over the economy.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and hea vy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural roduction. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of large dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched Indias programme to harness nuclear energy. For most of Nehrus term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continued to plague the population. edit Education and social reform Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for Indias children and youth, believing it essential for Indias future progress.His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of Indias children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult education centre s, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. edit National security and foreign policy See also Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the United States and the Soviet Union competed to make India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. H e pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea. 18 He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U. N. , he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah , whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 visit to Karachi. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. 19 He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called these frightful engines of destruction. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled rela tions between India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen, S.Radhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotismcitation needed, although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy most notably, she used his oft-stated personal deference to the Congress Working Committee to push through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was hurt by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian border treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It increased his popularity, but he was criticized the use of m ilitary force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public viewing of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun carriage used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and this accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the Forward Policy of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and thus the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no territory as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his governments insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister Krishn a Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus health began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. 23 Upon his return from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit Legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of r ural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont think others might have succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the t ranslation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit Commemoration Nehru hands out sweets to children in Nongpoh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehrus ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys manif esto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. Many documentaries about Nehrus life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films.The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three times in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The Discovery of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last Days of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today aside from lending his name to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal N ehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Nehru and his familys legacy. edit Writings Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a well-known Marxist historian, criticized Nehru in his article for the bourgeoisie class exploitation of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as causing the partition of India, mostly referrin g to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah opposed in favour of a more decentralised India. The split between the two was among the causes of partition. It is believed that personal animosity between the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah.

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