Saturday, March 30, 2019
Introduction To Development Psychology
admission To Development PsychologyThe following essay will Comp argon and counterpoint the information wait on approach with the deportmentist approach to understanding childrens mental development. Taking into note the historical development of Psychology. The essay will hold in into account how the two approaches differ and how the two theories were developed. Piagets and Miller be theoriser of cognitive Development and information touch perspectives, these theorist make believe had a deep impact on understanding cognitive development. Skinner and Bandura are theorist of behaviour theorist each one has a contrary approach to how they gull things.Information touch and cognitive development are of the same brain , cognitive psychology looks at each man-to-man as processor of information, Like ready reckoners that record the information given and accordingly shop class it the remembering and then goes on to produce the output ( Mcleod,2008). cognitive psychologis t compares the human mind to a computer, stating that we are able to retrieve and store information given to us and then alter it by development mental programs (Mcleod, 2008).The Information affect theory also contains quantitative and qualitative development with qualitative development happening though a sweet line of attach for storing information and retrieval or gathering problem- closure rules (Miller, 2011).Expanding and being able to remember more items in the working keeping are examples of quantitative changes. Qualitative and quantitative methods of defining information twain work together to progress new ways in the process system (Miller, 2011).Jean Piagets (2002) was as being the most influential theorist of child development his studies began by observing his own children when they were infants and how they unravelled problems that Piagets had put in front of them. Piagets later went on to sight other children by use a clinical method of how children would so lve and remember different things act from rules, games to the laws of physics. From observation made, Piagets devised his cognitive developmental theory of intellectual growth. Piagets sees children as wide awake agents in their own developments, always building their Knowledge and altering their cognitive structure to be able to understand what goes on in the introduction (Shaffer, 2002). Piagets cognitive development has continued to be very popular because of its extensiveness and a worthwhile tool for thought and query. Critics may have interpreted his viewpoints to bang (Flanagan 1996)Further research was done by George Miller(1956) on information processing and cognitive psychology. He provided two theoretical ideas of which was chunking which is the capacity for the little(a) term working memory. Miller (1956) stated that the short term memory could only hold Five to Nine chunks of information. The second theoretical idea was information processing by victimization a h uman computer model (Miller 1920).Behaviourism works on the foundations of stimulus response which is behaviour caused by external stimuli. Watson (1913) states that you are born with a blank designate Tabula Rosa he claims that children have no inborn tendencies he believes how you flex out depends on your up brining and how you are treated as a child. Watson went out to demonstrate that worship and other emotions are acquired and not inborn. The materialisation of classical music conditioning that Watson and Rosalie Raynor (1920) did was that of a rat to a nine month old named Albert, the moveion of Albert was positive and he played with the rat as he had done with the dog and rabbit previously. however the next while Little Albert went to play with the rat Watson tried to get the response of fearfulness from Little Albert when he touched the rat, Watson would do this by standing stool him and bang a steel rod with a hammer and to see what reaction he got from Albert as the child started to associate the loud whopping whilst playing with the rat, the reaction was that Little Albert did became fearful of the rat and this proved that fear is learned (Shaffer, 2002).Another example of classical condition is that of a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov whilst studying the saliva of dog he discovered a phenomenon that he labelled psychic reflexes. And the experiment then became called Pavlovs dogs were. The dogs were in a sleeping accommodation he recognised that if he paired the meat powder with a stimulus like the noise of a ringing bell the dogs would react and that would produce the dogs salivation. Pavlov has shown that stimulus-response. (Learning-theories.com 2012).Burrhus Fredrick Skinner( 1904-90) theory was related to behaviour he was well cognize and had the most effect in his area of psychology. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning for the reason that children learn from their environment. Research was done by using anima ls and children he stated that it can be possible to shape whatever(prenominal) animals and childrens behaviour by using reinforcement for example the naughty cadence or a star chart , Parents still apply reinforcement by praising a child when he or she has been genuine or punishing them if they have missed behaved (Slater and Bremner 2003).Albert Bandura (1925) studied different behaviours in encourage detail. His behaviourism was less machine-like than skinners theory. He did not only sign up on observing behaviour he also studied what processes went on in the mind. His approach at first was named sociobehaviorism, then social cognitive theory and in the end social instruction theory (Slater and Bremner 2003). In the 1960s Bandura conducted a sequence of experiments on childrens aggression. How this was achieved was putting a lower-ranking mathematical group of children in front of the TV to observe a take away of an adult playing with various different toys one of whic h was an inflatable Bobo doll. The group watched the film and what they saw was the adult aggressively hitting the doll with a hammer. When the children were left alone to play with some toys and their own Bobo doll he discover them being aggressive towards the doll mimicking what they seen on the screen. Bandura (1925) believed that children learnt from what they have observed (Slater and Bremner 2003).Bandura (1977,1986,1992) agrees with Skinner that operant conditioning is a vital form of learning more so for animals. In spite of this Bandura emphasises that humans are cognitive beings- who actively access, store and retrieve information processing (Shaffer 2002)By analyse and contrasting the two approaches, information processing and behaviourism, there are some differences in the way we learn and understand. Behaviourism, acts on stimulation, whereas cognitive and information processing uses mental processes to formulate ideas.The view of the learning process for a behaviouri st is change in behavior, while a cognitivist views internal mental process including insight, information processing, memory and perception. The focus of learning for behaviorists is the stimuli in external environments, whereas cognitivists have internal cognitive structuring. (Buchanan, K 1997).Behaviorism and Cognitivism are two theorys in psychology that have an effect on learning and education. Behaviorism is the study of behavior for the purpose of identifying its factors. Behaviorism employs implement as a radical metaphor, which assumes that behavior is ruled by a set of physical laws. Cognitivism was a reaction to Behaviorism. It is the study of mental processes through the scientific method and vacateions from behavior. Cognitivism employs mechanism and information processing as the principle metaphors for interpreting findings ( Atkisson, 2010).The theorist differs curiously in their views on behavior. The study on behaviorism was done on animals, which views behavio r as a complex consequence of environmental stimuli, whereas Cognitivism, whose research subjects are often humans, sees behavior as a point from which to abstract the mental processes behind the behavior. ( Atkisson, 2010).Cognitivism and Behaviorism are similar in probatory ways. They two use mechanism as a fundamental assumption. Cognitivism goes further than behaviorism in that it extends the mechanical assumptions to the mind, not just behavior. But stock-still both theorys view human action, mental or otherwise, as rigid by physical laws. ( Atkisson, 2010).In conclusion this essay has compared and contrasted the information processing approach with the behaviourist approach to understanding childrens psychological development. It has taken into account the historical development of Psychology. It has explored the theories of Piaget, Miller, Watson, Skinner, and Bandura and related the quantitative and qualitative. It is pertinent to say that although both theorist have the ir place the behaviourist dates back to 1913 when Watson stated that you are born with a blank slate Tabula Rosa Since this time cognitive research has developed and shows that as well as behaviourist views remains. thither is proof that even in behaviour cognitive and information processing is needed to make informed decisions about right and wrong.