Thursday, May 30, 2019

Antibiotic Usage Essay -- Biology, DNA

This optimism has been dissipated long before the 20th century when the proliferation of antibiotic bulwark bacteria became evident as Fleming predicted earlier. With the rapid development of infectious malady associated with antibiotic resistance forced us to change the way we view disease and the way we treat patients. However, antibiotic use has not been without consequence and some(prenominal) factors had contributed to the development of resistance. Some resistances are due to spontaneous regeneration and these mutations are for select antibiotic resistance whilst other bacteria tend to steal the deoxyribonucleic pane of glass (DNA) from their counterparts who are already familiar with antibiotics (Mims, 2004 Tenover, 2006).Antibiotic remained effective against most bacterial infection, however these bacterial cells develop resistance and continue to divide resulting in a resistant population and some are no longer effective against infectious disease that was killed few years ago (Levy, 2000). The impact of antibiotic resistance could lead to more infectious diseases that are hard to treat and could result in a global threat making it difficult as mutation and evolutionary pressure cause increase in antibiotic resistance (Strelkauskas et al, 2010). Antibiotics are extremely important medicine but unfortunately bacteria snuff it resistant make it problematic as antibiotic resistance had posed problem around the world people continued to travel and modern applied science and sociology exacerbated the development of resistant strains, these strains are transferred from infected people causing a repeat in cycle as they moved from one place to the future(a) (WHO, 2001). Increased globalisation is responsible for resistance, in large overpopulat... ...odified penicillin binding proteins. Some resistant bacteria could be dangerous for example MRSA and the vancomycin resistant staph auerus that are virulent in human pathogens (Strelkauskas, 2010 ) by reducing the permeability of their membranes as a way of keeping out antibiotic by turn of events off production of porin and other proteins (Weston, 2008), for example the multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis. In pathogens such as Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus, efflux pumps played a major purpose in multi-drug resistance likewise Klebsiella species becoming resistance and other bacteria producing enzymes from Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase (Livermore and Hawley, 2005 Tenover, 2006) also multi-drug resistance antibiotics Acinetobacter Baumanii and the New Delhi Metallo-1(NDM-1) causing havoc amongst the healthcare setting (HPA, 2010).

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